Meningitis: what it is, how it is transmitted and what to do to protect yourself | Hello

According to the Municipal Health Department, the illness was accountable for 5 instances between July 16 and September 15. But what causes this sort of meningitis, how is it transmitted and how can we protect ourselves?

In this report you will notice:

  1. What is meningitis?
  2. What causes the illness?
  3. What is meningococcal meningitis?
  4. How is meningococcal meningitis transmitted?
  5. What are the signs of meningococcal meningitis?
  6. What are the types of prevention?
  7. How is meningitis handled?

The meninges are the membranes that encompass your entire central nervous system. Meningitis happens when there is irritation of this lining attributable to microorganisms, drug allergic reactions, most cancers, and different brokers.

“Meningitis is an irritation of the membranes that cowl the mind, these ‘caps’. Therefore, this irritation causes complications, fatigue, malaise, excessive fever, stiff neck…” explains Lina Paola Rodríguez, Infectious Disease Specialist at BP – A Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo.

Meningitis has excessive mortality and sequelae, similar to deafness, lack of motion, and harm to the nervous system. Children are essentially the most affected age group and sufferers must be adopted up for a minimum of 6 months after sickness.

Meningitis can present itself in some ways.

2) What causes the illness?

The illness will be attributable to micro organism, viruses, fungi and parasites, in accordance to the Ministry of Health.

According to the folder, viral and bacterial meningitis are most essential to public well beingdue to the size of its incidence and the potential to trigger outbreaks.

This is emphasised by the ministry bacterial meningitis is extra frequent in autumn-winter, and viral – in spring-summer.. Men are additionally most affected by the illness.

3) What is meningococcal meningitis?

Meningitis will be attributable to a number of micro organism, however the primary ones are: meningococci and pneumococci.

In explicit, meningococcal meningitis is attributable to meningococci Neisseria meningitidis and It can have an effect on individuals of any age.

4) How is meningococcal meningitis transmitted?

Meningitis is unfold when small droplets of saliva from an contaminated individual come into contact with the liner of the nostril or mouth of a wholesome individual. It will be by means of coughing, sneezing or secretions by means of the respiratory tract (nostril and mouth).

According to the São Paulo Municipal Health Department, for this transmission to happen, there is a necessity for direct, intimate and frequent contact with the affected person (change of secretions).

5) What are the signs of meningococcal meningitis?

The essential signs of bacterial meningitis normally seem for a short while. They are nonetheless in accordance to the Ministry of Health:

  • Fever;
  • malaise;
  • vomiting;
  • Severe headache and neck ache;
  • Difficulty putting the chin on the chest;
  • Red spots unfold over the physique (in some instances).

Furthermore, in infants, the next signs are extra frequent:

Babies can also expertise:

  • A tense or raised mole;
  • Moaning when touched;
  • Anxiety with shrill crying;
  • Stiffness of the physique with involuntary actions or “gentle” physique, dropped.

“In case of suspicion, the affected person must be taken to the emergency division instantly,” says Lina Paola Rodríguez.

“It is a illness that may develop with being pregnant, has a excessive mortality charge and, in instances of survival, there is an opportunity of great penalties, similar to deafness, motor results, and so on.

6) What are the types of prevention?

In the general public well being system, there are immunizers that protect towards the illness. The vaccines obtainable within the vaccination scheme of the National Immunization Program are:

  • Meningococcal vaccine (conjugate): protects towards meningococcal illness attributable to serogroup C.
  • 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine (conjugated): protects towards invasive illnesses attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae, together with meningitis.
  • Pentavalent: protects towards invasive illnesses attributable to Haemophilus influenzae serotype B, similar to meningitis, and additionally towards diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and hepatitis B.

7) How is meningitis handled?

The remedy is dependent upon the causative agent of the an infection.

Viral meningitis has no particular remedy and, like different viruses, goes away by itself. Medicines can solely deal with signs, similar to ache and fever, the well being ministry explains.

Bacterial meningitis, alternatively, is extra severe and should be handled instantly, in a hospital setting, with antibiotics.

“The vaccine is the primary prevention. But presently of winter, it’s very best to observe isolation and hand hygiene measures,” says Lina Paola Rodríguez, an infectious illness specialist at BP.

According to the São Paulo Health Department, 24 hours after the beginning of antibiotic remedy, the affected person not transmits the micro organism.

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